Universal (Polish:Uniwersał, Ukrainian:Універсал) is a historic term that means an official proclamation or legal act. In several historic periods Universals were issued by the Polish and Ukrainian authorities. The name originates from Latinlitterae universales, meaning universal publication directed to all. The term was recently revived in modern Ukraine where the Universal of National Unity, a political multiparty agreement signed on August 3, 2006, ended a parliamentary crisis.
Universals were issued by the kings and governing authorities of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the Commonwealth, a universal could be a letter from the king read publicly to address significant events or a legal act by the king related to economic, military or religious matters. Universals were also routinely used to call the szlachta to assemble for a Sejm, or to report for pospolite ruszenie (or common levy). Universals could also be issued by high officials of the Commonwealth, like hetmans commanding military forces or voievodes overseeing a voivodeship. One of the most significant universals was the Uniwersał Połaniecki issued by Tadeusz Kościuszko in 1794, which proclaimed the end of serfdom.
We will not give in, ever ... We will always be on the side of human dignity and universal values ... On Sunday, the Persian GulfCooperation Council (GCC) described Macron’s position as “irresponsible,” and said it was aimed at spreading a culture of hatred among peoples ... Hezbollah ... The QatarUniversity has also postponed a Frenchcultural week ... ....